What Is Hoarseness?
Hoarseness is a general term that describes abnormal voice changes. When hoarse,
the voice may sound breathy, raspy, strained, or there may be changes in volume
(loudness) or pitch (how high or low the voice is). The changes in sound are
usually due to disorders related to the vocal folds that are the sound producing
parts of the voice box (larynx). While breathing, the vocal folds remain apart.
When speaking or singing, they come together, and as air leaves the lungs, they
vibrate, producing sound. The more tightly the vocal folds are held and the smaller
the vocal folds, the more rapidly they vibrate. More rapid vibration makes a
higher voice pitch. Swelling or lumps on the vocal folds prevent them from coming
together properly, which makes a change in the voice.
What Are the Causes?
There are many causes of hoarseness. Fortunately, most are not serious and
tend to go away in a short period of time. The most common causes are acute
laryngitis, which usually occurs due to swelling from a common cold, upper
respiratory tract viral infection, or irritation caused by excessive voice
use such as screaming at a sporting event or rock concert.
More prolonged hoarseness is usually due to using your voice either too much,
too loudly, or improperly over extended periods of time. These habits can
lead to vocal nodules (singers nodes), which are callous-like growths, or
may lead to polyps of the vocal folds (more extensive swelling).
Vocal nodules are common in children and adults who raise their voice in work
or play. Uncommonly, polyps or nodules may lead to cancer.
A common cause of hoarseness in older adults is gastroesophageal reflux, when
stomach acid comes up the swallowing tube (esophagus) and irritates the vocal
folds. Many patients with reflux related changes of voice do not have symptoms
of heartburn. Usually, the voice is worse in the morning and improves during
the day. These people may have a sensation of a lump in their throat, mucous
sticking in their throat or an excessive desire to clear their throat.
Smoking is another cause of hoarseness. Since smoking is the major cause of
throat cancer, if smokers are hoarse, they should see an otolaryngologist.
Many unusual causes for hoarseness include allergies, thyroid problems, neurological
disorders, trauma to the voice box, and occasionally, the normal menstrual
cycle. Many people experience some hoarseness with advanced age.
Who Can Treat My Hoarseness?
Hoarseness due to a cold or flu may be evaluated by family physicians, pediatricians,
and internists (who have learned how to examine the larynx). When hoarseness
lasts longer than two weeks or has no obvious cause it should be evaluated
by an otolaryngologist—head and neck surgeon (ear, nose and throat doctor).
Problems with the voice are best managed by a team of professionals who know
and understand how the voice functions. These professionals are otolaryngologist—head
and neck surgeons, speech/language pathologists, and teachers of singing, acting,
or public speaking. Voice disorders have many different characteristics that
may give professionals a clue to the cause.
When Should I See An Otolaryngologist?
hoarseness lasts longer than 2-3 weeks;
hoarseness is associated with any of the following symptoms: pain not from
a cold or flu, coughing up blood, difficulty swallowing, or a lump in the
loss or severe change in voice lasting longer than a few days.
How Is Hoarseness Evaluated?
An otolaryngologist will obtain a thorough history of the hoarseness and your
general health. Your doctor will usually look at the vocal folds with a mirror
placed in the back of your throat. Occasionally a very small lighted flexible
tube (fiberoptic scope) may need to be passed through your nose (or in some
cases, a rigid scope may be used which is placed in the back of your mouth)
in order to view your vocal folds. Videotaping the examination may also help
with the analysis.
These procedures are not uncomfortable and are well tolerated by most patients.
In some cases, special tests (known as acoustic analysis) designed to evaluate
the voice, may be recommended. These measure voice irregularities, how the
voice sounds, airflow, and other characteristics that are helpful in establishing
a diagnosis and guiding treatment.
How Are Vocal Disorders Treated?
The treatment of hoarseness depends on the cause. Most hoarseness can be treated
by simply resting the voice or modifying how it is used. The otolaryngologist
may make some recommendations about voice use behavior, refer the patient to
other voice team members, and in some instances recommend surgery if a lesion,
such as a nodule or polyp, is identified. Avoidance of smoking or exposure
to secondhand smoke (passive smoking) is recommended to all patients. Drinking
fluids is also helpful.
Specialists in speech/language pathology are trained to assist patients in
behavior modification that may help eliminate some voice disorders. Sometimes,
patients have developed bad habits, such as smoking or overuse of their voice
by yelling and screaming. The speech/language pathologist may teach patients
to alter their method of speech production to improve the sound of the voice
and to resolve problems, such as vocal nodules. When a patient's problem is
specifically related to singing, a singing teacher may help improve the patients'
What Can I Do to Prevent and Treat Mild Hoarseness?
- If you smoke, quit.
- Avoid agents that dehydrate the body, such as alcohol and caffeine. Avoid
- Drink plenty of water.
- Humidify your home.
- Watch your diet–avoid spicy foods.
- Try not to use your voice too long or too loudly.
- Seek professional voice training.
- Avoid speaking or singing when your voice is injured or hoarse.
- If you have further questions about Hoarseness, please feel free to contact